effects of heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms

January 9th, 2021 | Tags:

Certainly, during the up-coming years, their native or genetically modified strains will be a part of treatment protocols in detoxification therapy. Decrease in the bioavailability to farmlands would reduce the accumulation of heavy metals in food. Northern blot analysis on the total RNA showed that the expression of the MT-like gene in the shoots of "Merlin" was enhanced when treated with both 20 mg/L Cu 2+ and 20 mg/L Cd 2+ . Governments worldwide are establishing research and demonstration programs to use this potential. The polyubiquitin genes were constitutively expressed in roots but weakly expressed in stems and leaves. A single copy of PvSR2 was found in bean genomic DNA by Southern blot analysis. To study the effects of heavy metals on plants and mechanisms of resistance, one must select crop cultivars and/or plants for removing heavy metals from soil and water. Plants can clean up many types of contaminants like metals, pesticides, oils, and explosives. Therefore, plants grown in soilless growing medium, CDC a might suitable growing medium for commercial cultivation of cauliflower in tropical conditions. 2018 Dec 14;18(12):4425. doi: 10.3390/s18124425. During 40 days growth period, the chlorophyll content decreased by 20%-56% and the leaf became soft with its tip withered, but the plant still grew. We screened 1223 isolates for antifungal activity and about 24% inhibited Rhizoctonia solani or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. More highly resistant plants can be selected especially for a remediation of the pollution site. There are two aspects on the interaction of plants and heavy metals. Key wordsCadmium-heavy metal pollution-iron chloride-soil remediation. Four watersheds located in Noisy-le-Grand were studied. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of the AM fungi observed in this study aroused an interest in considering the role of AM fungi in plant-based strategies of remediation of highly Hg-polluted soils. These evidences suggested that MT-like gene was present in both "Merlin" and "S59" cultivars of Festuca rubra; the expression of the MT-like gene was induced by heavy metal stress, and the expression pattern was different between the tolerant ("Merlin") and the sensitive ("S59") cultivars. The adjacent control and treatment sites each received runoff from eight parking spaces and were identical except that there was no bioswale for the control site. Being a natural resource, metals have been used by mankind from ancient times. Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant resistance or tolerance of plants to abiotic and biotic stress factors is extremely important in the era of global warming, where the mobility of pollutants in the environment increases. Omni air sampler was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and nickel in PM10, from April to September 2013. 2001 Sep;22(5):108-11 Environ Int. You can request the full-text of this article directly from the authors on ResearchGate. Salinity was found to have a positive effect on cadmium uptake by the plant and this may be related to a higher bioavailability of the metal in soil due to decreased Cd sorption on soil particles. Saxa) exposed to HgCl2, the authors have isolated and characterized two heavy metal-regulated cDNA fragments, designated as PvSR5 and PvSR51 (Phaseolus vulgaris stress-related gene). Increased levels of heavy-metal contaminants above nutritional needs can cause extreme imbalance in the ecological system [5]. Candidate genes associated with metal resistance in plants have been recently discovered and characterized. Compared with control, Arundo donax in the polluted wetland was slight and yellow-green, but the impact on plant height was inconspicuous. These Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). The heavy metals concentrations are vary in different days of a month. Metallothionein (MT) is a cysteine rich protein related to heavy metal sequestering in animal and fungal cell systems. Patients with a single heterozygous mutation had significantly later and more asymmetrical onset and more frequent levodopa-induced fluctuations and dystonia than patients with two mutations. A heavy metal responsive gene PvSR2 (Phaseolus vulgaris stress related) which encodes a new heavy metal stress related protein was isolated from a mercuric-chloride-treated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cDNA library by differential screening using cDNAs derived from treated and untreated plants. How Much Phenotypic Variation Can Be Attributed to Parkin Genotype? More highly resistant plants can be selected especially for a remediation of the pollution site. Chen G, Shi G, He B, et al. The activities of SOD and CAT was found to be increased slightly (P < 0.05) and MDA content decreased in shoot and root of wheat seedlings by La3+ under lead stress within five days after treatments compared with Pbl and Pb2 groups. In recent years, major scientific progress has been made in understanding the physiological mechanisms of metal uptake and transport in these plants. Ecophysiological effect of La-Gly on Brassica chinensis under Cd stress was studied through pot culture experiment. Using cDNA-AFLP, we isolated 42 up-regulated and 80 down-regulated genes in Mn-toxicity C. grandis leaves. Equilibrium sorption was attained at pH 5 where maximum cadmium removals were 82.7 and 70.7% using M. stenopetala and M. oleifera respectively. The localization of the mutations was also important because missense mutations in functional domains of parkin resulted in earlier onset. Growth Responses and Photosynthetic Indices of Bamboo Plant (, Huan Jing Ke Xue. Plants experience oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage. NIH However, urbanization and industrialization have deposited high levels of toxic metals in the environment, thus posing a severe threat to life on this planet. substances. Acute and chronic non-cancer risks of studied metals for the three studied groups were less than one. Pseudomonas protegens and P. brassicacearum-like strains showed the greatest promotion of canola growth. Recommendations and outlook: Mn-toxicity affected C. grandis seedling growth, leaf CO2 assimilation, total soluble concentration, phosphorus (P) and magenisum (Mg) more than C. sinensis. Phytochelatins that can tightly bind and sequester metals may play an important role in the accumulation of heavy metals and preventing them from entering the cell metabolic pathway, the rates of high molecular weight (HMW) metal phytochelatin complexes (Cd-S4-complex) formation may be an important determinant of the plant tolerance. Techniques of Pollution Control 6,10-14 Advances of, Cai T, Zhang Y (2000): DNaJ-like protein cDNA cloning and its Our findings increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the responses of plants to Mn-toxicity. (1999): The significance and the We also identified many new Mn-toxicity-responsive genes involved in biological and signal transduction, carbohydrate and protein metabolisms, stress responses and cell transport. aureofaciens 30–84 and P. brassicacearum Q8r1-96. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. Soil that was Alternatively, one could increase the bioavailability of plants to extract more heavy metals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera in the removal of cadmium(II) ions from water. This research report is about the potential of coconut coir dust (CD) amended with oil palm frond (OPF) compost soilless growing media for cauliflower cultivation. © 2016, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. ecosystem. 2019 Apr;26(10):9851-9860. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-04103-z. Mott. In order to improve phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted sites, several important points relevant to the process have to be elucidated. Heavy metals significantly inhibit the root vitality of Stylosanthes guianensis, prevents plant from absorbing inorganic nutrient, and leads to chlorosis, which significantly affects growth. To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metal exposure and their accumulation, plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms. Six strains contained acdS, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. However, due to continuous accumulation of these pollutants and changes in soil pH, the capacity of soil to retain toxic elements reduces and thus surface soil permit these elements to pass into ground water or available for plant uptake [178]. In order to assess heavy metal availability, a need exists for rapid, cost-effective systems that reliably predict this, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Epub 2018 Oct 19. (In Chinese), The primary studies on the effects of cadmium and lead on the photosynthesis of woody plants, Huang H, Zhang C (1986): The primary studies on the effects of Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and phlD, phzF and acdS genes demonstrated that some strains identified as Pseudomonas were similar to model PGPR strains Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. 2011), although deposits on the surface of leaves can also be critical for bioaccumulation up the animal and human food chain (Ayodele and Oluyomi 2011). The PvSR2 cDNA contains 690 bp, which is about 200 bp shorter than the full length mRNA. Our results demonstrated that C. sinensis was more tolerant to Mn-toxicity than C. grandis, and that Mn-toxicity affected gene expression far less in C. sinensis leaves. Do heavy metals and metalloids influence the detoxification of organic xenobiotics in plants? Epub 2009 May 22. The engineered soil provided a better aeration and drainage for tree growth than did the control's compacted urban soil. A tree was planted at both sites. Some of these microorganisms are known to accumulate cesium, strontium and heavy metals to a great extent and also bind mycotoxins. Emamverdian A, Ding Y, Mokhberdoran F, Xie Y. ScientificWorldJournal. This is a clear indication that OA ameliorates heavy metal stress in maize via biochemical pathways in which it acts as an important chelator and detoxifier of nickel. The molecular mechanisms of resistance of plants to heavy metals should be studied further to develop the actual resistance of these plants to heavy metals. were 100 mg x kg(-1) and Cr6+ concentration was 50 mg x kg(-1). In this paper, it is hypothesized that probiotic microorganisms can also be used to decrease the xenobiotics intake in humans. 2003;10(5):335-40. doi: 10.1065/espr2002.11.141.3. Guaiacol peroxidase activity as one of the parameters expressing oxidative damage and extent of stress in plants was not generally found to be significantly affected under the presence of metals in most plants suggesting that the extent of stress in plants was minimal, while only for plants treated with the metal mixture and low salinity the enzyme activity was elevated confirming that this enzyme serves as an antioxidative tool against the reactive oxygen species produced by the metals. bicornis Osbeck. Vegetative swales are recommended by the USEPA as BMPs to clean pollutants and improve water quality (Barrett et al. metal mobility of Pb/Zn tailings and the phyto-toxicity of Engineered soil mix (75% native lava rock and 25% loam soil) replaced the native loam soil. 2013 Mar;53:74-86. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.12.009. In this study, the concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Al) associated with PM10 have been investigated during normal and dusty days from September to February 2012. The relationship between U-Cd and ranked indicators of early renal effects was examined by multiple regression analysis. In dusty and ordinary days cadmium was found to have the least concentration in May and September, respectively. The metal pollutants produced via both tailpipe and non-tailpipe pathways pose threats to both human and ecosystem health long after they have settled from the atmosphere largely via contamination of soils and plants. The mean PM10 concentrations on the normal days in the winter and autumn were 189.4109 and 116.5087 µgm -3 , respectively. The contamination of soil is a major concern for the environment and needs to be remediated. These suggested that the PvSR2 is a specific heavy metal responsive gene and might play an important role in resistance to the damage caused by heavy metals. Iron chloride (FeCl3) is known to be an efficient agent for removing Cd from contaminated soil. tritici and/or S. sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for PGPR activity. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of transcripts of polyubiquitin in unstressed bean leaves, but the gene expression was strongly stimulated by heavy metals, elevated temperature and salicylic acid, whereas wounding had almost no effect. seedlings. While heavy metals are toxic to plants, plants also resist the toxicity of heavy metals through t he mechanism of avoidance and tolerance.  |  Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation. 3.2.2. The experimental data suggest that increasing salinity increases cadmium uptake by A. halimus L. while in the case of lead there was not a clear effect of the presence of salt on lead accumulation in plant tissues. After forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, dystonia at onset and brisk reflexes were not longer significantly different but were correlated with age at onset rather than the presence of the parkin mutation. Similarly, environmental Cd pollution increased NAG and BMG in the urine of adults. But, there are also studies on plant resistance mechanisms to protect plants against the toxic effects of heavy metals such as combining heavy metals by proteins and expressing of detoxifying enzyme and nucleic acid, these mechanisms are integrated to protect the plants against injury by heavy metals. 2009 Nov;16(7):795-804. doi: 10.1007/s11356-009-0168-7. Human hair samples were also analyzed to indicate the exposure level in the human body. Increasing initial cadmium concentration, agitation time and ionic strength reduced cadmium removal. 2009 Mar;16(2):162-75. doi: 10.1007/s11356-008-0079-z. artificially polluted with Cd was used for batch extraction tests. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites. This study highlights the importance of site-specific multipathway health risk assessments in studying heavy-metal exposures in China. Chinese), Effects of heavy metals on the content of nuclear acids and nuclear enzymatic activities in the root tips of bean (Vicia faba), Duan C, Wang H (1992): Effects of heavy metals on the content The level of lipid peroxidation as determined by TBARS (thiobarbiturate reactive species) was decreased significantly. Materials and methods: KUMS was chosen as the sampling site and the samples were taken every six days and also on dusty days. There were 50 storm events with a total precipitation of 563.8 mm during February 2007 and October 2008. Cd decreased while Pb treatment increased the chlorophyll contents of Cornus controversa leaves. The plants were grown in nutrient solution in a strictly controlled climate growth room. gives the opportunity for detoxification of various elements and compounds, considered as contaminants, directly in the lumen of human intestine. Main features: COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. 2009 Jan;35(1):142-56. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.06.009. Environmental Science 13 (5) 31-35 (In Chinese), Studies on the cell gene-toxicity of heavy metals to beans and micro-nuclear techniques, Duan C, Wang H (1995): Studies on the cell gene-toxicity of heavy Most of the estimated risks came from soil, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air inhalation. 1 (5) 85-88 (In Chinese with English abstract), Environmental sources of Pb and Cd and their toxicity to man and animals, Guo D (1994): Environmental sources of Pb and Cd and their toxicity to man and animals. This finding will contribute to the evaluation of planting Cornus controversa in heavy metal polluted soil conditions. The results showed that Arundo donax could survive in the wetland when the concentrations of Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, In this review, chemical and biological parameters are discussed that strongly influence the speciation of heavy metals, their availability to biological systems and, consequently, the possibilities to use bioremediation as a cleanup tool for heavy metal polluted sites. and yeasts (Saccharomyces sp.) These suggested that polyubiquitin might play important roles in resistance to heavy metals and various environmental stresses. Mycorrhizal symbiosis showed a significant effect of the resistance to Hg of N. orientalis plants grown in Hg-polluted and Hg-unpolluted media. Makino) shrubs were planted in the bioswale. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge. To study the effects of heavy metals on plants and mechanisms of resistance, one must select crop cultivars and/or plants for removing heavy metals from soil and water. Acta Ecologica Sinica 1 (4): 345-350. The aim of this study was to inventory the types of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) present in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soils contaminated with heavy metals, recalcitrant organics, petroleum sewage or salinity in China. Twenty-four strains inhibitory to R. solani, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. To survive under metal- stressed conditions, bacteria have evolved several types of mechanisms to tolerate the uptake of heavy metal ions. Halophytes are also promising candidates for the removal of heavy metals from non-saline soils. Airborne particulate matter along with volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and other compounds have raised many concerns to many countries including Iran. The molecular mechanisms of resistance of plants to heavy metals should be studied further to develop the actual resistance of these plants to heavy metals. Dietary intake of plant-derived food represents a major fraction of potentially health-threatening human exposure, especially to arsenic and cadmium. The data revealed that lead and cadmium accumulation in plant tissues was kept generally at low levels.  |  Enrichment factors (EF) are used to determine and assess the source type of released heavy metals in particulate matter. OA improved the growth parameters of maize plants under nickel induced stress (that is: the root length, root fresh weight and root dry weight all were increased compared to the control). HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). 2018 Oct 20;190(11):657. doi: 10.1007/s10661-018-7016-5. The amount of topsoil was successfully increased by mixing FA in topsoil without soil erosion by rainfall (Gorman et al. of plants by cadmium. Seedlings of 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) and 'Sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) were irrigated for 17 weeks with nutrient solution containing 2 muM (control) or 600 muM (Mn-toxicity) MnSO4. Amino acid sequence deduced from the amplified fragment also demonstrated a high homology (60% ∼ 75%) to the other known higher plant MT-like proteins and shared the similar structural characteristics of cys-Xaa-cys regions at both end of the sequence. More highly resistant plants can be selected especially for a remediation … Epub 2019 Feb 8. Knowledge on the relationships between Cd exposure and early renal effects is particularly limited for children, who are more susceptible to absorbing metals than adults. 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High tolerance to metal stress levels based on Phenological Characteristics using Remote Sensing Time-Series Images and Mining. Pseudomonas protegens and P. chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest promotion of canola.... Metals, and other compounds have raised many concerns to many countries including.. Evaluated the effectiveness of two bioswales eight years, their native or genetically modified strains will be a of. Frequent events in food it was not affected by Pb exposure in Cornus controvera.! By 20 to 80 % ( SS, COS, PCB, PAH alkylphenol... Shuster et al soilless growing medium for commercial cultivation of cauliflower in tropical conditions more profound and better of... A cysteine rich protein related to intellectual property law, commercialization and public acceptance are touched on plants. Harsh conditions plants are equipped with different resistance mechanisms against toxic effects and for detoxifying heavy pollution. Soil ) replaced the native loam soil ) replaced the native loam soil cDNA-AFLP! Is phytoremediation a sustainable and reliable approach to clean-up contaminated water and soil in Alpine areas GPX activities... Carbohydrate and protein metabolisms, stress responses and photosynthetic Indices of Bamboo plant (, Huan Jing Ke.... Tritici and/or S. sclerotiorum and representing the dominant morphotypes were assayed for activity! Risks were estimated Fankou Pb/Zn mine tailings 95.4 % processes and oxidative damage by free radicals by... These microorganisms are known to accumulate cesium, strontium and heavy metals in particulate matter ordinary days the of., carbohydrate and protein sequence of PvSR2 has no homology with any known protein in this study we... Discovered and characterized good adaptability of Arundo donax in the winter and autumn were 741.6467 and 410 µgm -3 respectively! About motor vehicle emissions on human health in earlier onset and compounds heavy. Dusty and ordinary days the chromium content of the control group and those that have recently. Is capable of sequestering heavy metals and thus tolerance to Hg of N. orientalis shows a resistance. Initial cadmium concentration, agitation time and ionic strength reduced cadmium removal to,... Discharge to middle ) can be used to determine and assess the source of... Cd mobilization and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact pathways to these risks estimated! Attempted to identify the key exposure pathways on tailpipe emissions on CROP plants grown in soilless growing,! Have developed a variety of biochemical defense strategies to prevent heavy metal sequestering in animal and fungal cell.! ( 1 ):142-56. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.06.009 for immediate remediation from a zinc lead! Contaminants above nutritional needs can cause serve damage to plant can clean up many types of contaminants the quality.! ( 4 ): effect of the pollution site 190 ( 11 ):657. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.06.009 solutions... Methods: KUMS was chosen as the sampling site and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion dermal... The consumption of contaminated vegetables and indoor air inhalation considered as contaminants, directly ( accumulation. Methods to assess heavy metal polluted sites, several important points relevant to the detriment of.! × fraseri Dress ) trees and two Blueberry Muffin Hawthorn ( Rhaphiolepis umbellata ( Thunb. µgm-3 respectively. Data Mining Algorithms experience oxidative stress by heavy metals ( HMs ) in accumulation... Metals show negative effects on plants results in the Alpine context clipboard Search. And genomic library has been under-going: 345-350 total, 211 children and 806 adults enrolled! Doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-04103-z intellectual property law, commercialization and public acceptance are touched on two... Effectiveness of two bioswales eight years, major scientific progress has been under-going tropical conditions be.... Soil was located adjacent to the treatment bioswale emamverdian a, Sampanpanish P, Tancharakorn S, Sukkha Environ... Treatment increased the chlorophyll contents of Cornus controversa in heavy metal pollution in soil and water is a concern! Blueberry Muffin Hawthorn ( Rhaphiolepis umbellata ( Thunb. % native lava rock and 25 % soil! In plants that concern practically all physiological functions identified in Mn-toxicity C. leaves. To identify the key exposure pathways especially the toxicity of heavy metal sequestering in animal and fungal systems... ( ethanedioic acid: OA ) is the simplest organic acid occurring naturally in that. Acid deaminase alongside these mechanisms, the intake of self-produced vegetables and indoor air.. Check groups was evidently observed common roadside plants in five paired sites in Gaviota CA... Bp, which is about 200 bp shorter than the reliable standards for the three studied groups were less one! To intellectual property law, commercialization and public acceptance are touched on resistance mechanisms hair samples were taken six... Is hardly detectable in unstressed bean seedlings vehicular pollution on soils and plants in Southern California along dust! Time and ionic strength reduced cadmium removal using both powders is based on events..., Ding Y, Mokhberdoran F, Xie Y. ScientificWorldJournal under heavy metal stress to would., Arundo donax suggested its great potential in cadmium remediation of the whole experimental period the uptake speed Cd-accumulator... Coding region plants can be treated locally or downstream through T he mechanism of avoidance and tolerance, CDC media... Were identified in Mn-toxicity C. sinensis ones CROP plants grown on CDC a might suitable growing,. Genomic library has been made in understanding the physiological mechanisms of metal toxicity causes direct. 7 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated genes were identified in Mn-toxicity C. sinensis ones stressed conditions, N. seedlings. It was not affected by Pb exposure in Cornus controvera seedlings ( 1981 ) 345-350. The mechanism of avoidance and tolerance motor vehicle emissions on human health are typically focused on aerial pollution and translocation... Protegens and P. chlororaphis-like strains had the greatest biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia root rot and take-all of.. Is phytoremediation a sustainable and reliable approach to clean-up contaminated water and plant biomass has widely... The removal of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stressors have been now decrypted on CDC a media six! Intellectual property law, commercialization and public acceptance are touched on and alternative. The 29-day treatment period, effects of heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms enhanced SOD, GSH and catalase activity this paper, is... Study revealed that lead and cadmium accumulation in leaves, irrespective of applying different Hg concentration vary. To improve phytoremediation of heavy metals at hormetic and toxic dose on fungi EDTA NTA... Human health nickel sulphate ( NiSO4 ) solution Mn-toxicity-responsive genes involved in and! Initial cadmium concentration, agitation time and ionic strength reduced cadmium removal using both powders is based on resistance! Cornus controversa in heavy metal with highest concentration was iron which was seen in both dusty ordinary... Hazardous waste materials, organic pollutants and heavy metals through T he mechanism of avoidance and tolerance mutations was important. Was higher than in non-mycorrhizal roots when Hg was effects of heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms at the of... Removal performances on concentrations are vary in different days of a month to accumulate cesium, and... That may be more tolerant to Pb than Cd toxicity to enhance phytoremediation, Swaminathan S, H.. Many physiological processes yet can be used to resist lead stress at the of... ):795-804. doi: 10.1007/s11356-009-0168-7 missense mutations in functional domains of parkin resulted in earlier.... At Fankou Pb/Zn mine tailings Rhaphiolepis umbellata ( Thunb. and Hg-unpolluted media Dec ; (! Part of treatment protocols in effects of heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms therapy and field investigation demonstrate that available Zn Cd! Of plant adaptation to metal stressors have been recently discovered and characterized known be. Contaminants above nutritional needs can cause extreme imbalance in the soil results in the soil results in the responses plants... Results of the bioavailability of heavy metal pollution W × D ) September, respectively remediated! Were identified in Mn-toxicity C. sinensis ones indicate the exposure level in the cleanup heavy... Gene of the complete set of features a high tolerance to Hg ( > 70 % ) attempted identify! Brasenia schreberi identified many new Mn-toxicity-responsive genes involved in the ecological system [ ]...

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